Robotics projects

How to make an obstacle avoiding robot

Last Updated on 09/09/22 0

What is an obstacle avoiding robot?

An obstacle avoiding robot or a car is a device in motion that avoids colliding with an obstacle either by taking a turn or by stopping at the obstacle. This prevents the robots cause damage and casualties.

Which sensor to use to make obstacle avoiding car?

Just to talk the general practice, an obstacle avoider robot can be made using either of these sensors.

  1. IR sensor – Infrared sensor
  2. Ultrasonic sensor

Both of them work on different principles and the output of ultrasonic sensors would be more accurate in the real world.

However, for learning purpose, we will use an IR sensor.

Both of these robotic kits can help you make an obstacle avoider car.

Circuit for obstacle avoider robot

Elements required

  • Power Element
  • Motor Elements (2)
  • Flip Element
  • IR Element pair with connecting cable

Accessories required

  • Car plate
  • Power bank
  • Geared motors (2)
  • Wheels (2)
  • Roller
  • Double sided tape
  • Wire ties

You can find all these elements and accessories in the DIY Robotics starter kit and DIY toy car kit.

There are two different functions an obstacle avoiding robot can perform.

  1. Stop the car if it detects an obstacle: The car or robot will stop and stand still at the obstacle. It will continue moving forward if the obstacle is removed, or if you change the direction of the car, towards a clear way ahead.
  2. Take a turn if the robot detects an obstacle: The robot will take a turn when it sees the object, to avoid a collision, and will continue moving in that direction until it sees another obstacle which makes it change the direction again.

Circuit for obstacle avoider that stops at an object

Circuit for obstacle avoider that takes a turn

How to make an obstacle avoiding robot.

Step 1: Make the car
Please refer to How to make a robotic car using Havi Elements or watch the following video.

Step 2: Place the circuit

Place the circuit on the robot using DST or elements hooks (if you are making it with the DIY robotic toy car) and connect the motors.

Step 3: Tune the IR Element

Use the potentiometer to set the range of the IR element. Set the potentiometer so it detects the adequate distance. Keeping the sensitivity high should help as it will detect the obstacle at distance and will prevent a collision.

Use potentiometer to adjust the IR detection range

Step 4: Execute your project

The obstacle here can be any object like a wall, human, pets, books, or any other physical object that comes into the sight of the IR Element.

How the obstacle avoiding car works

Case of a robot that stops at an obstacle.

The Flip element between IR and motors will make the motors run in case there is no obstacle. So when the IR detects the object, the Flip will send a no command and the motors will stop rotating. That makes the robot stop.


Case of robot that takes a turn at the obstacle.

Here one of the motors is out of IR control and which will continue rotating, irrespective of the presence of an obstacle. But another motor, under the control of IR and flip, will stop at an obstacle. That makes the car take a turn.


Applications of obstacle avoiding robots.

For a smart autonomous car, obstacle avoidance is the top most feature to keep the passenger safe.

The same is the case for robots.

Avoiding obstacles is the most important and common feature of all the smart cars and robots that are in motion.

Now try building one and experience it yourself.

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